Management and control of Cotton insect pest
Gossypium Cotton are the most important fiber crop are cultivated on wild rage of area among in India are a larger area of cultivation is 9.0 million hectare grow under agro-climatic zone. Cotton has providing row material for textile industries and give important role in domestic economy of country.
Gossypium are cultivated in several states in India, which are divided in three different zone viz. north zone, south zone and center zone. North zone consist of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. South zone consist of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In center zone consist of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujrat.
More than 1326 species have been reported as cotton pest in the world, some are cause several injuries during growth period and some are affected during cotton ball formation as get infected all the stages by pest. Infection of pest may be recovers at several stages but it caused economical loss and total loss of crop during low practices of cultivation and management.
FACTS: LEAF CURL IS TRANSMITTED BY WHITE FLY.
In India around 162 species of cotton pest are reported, among which 15 species called as major pest due to their occurrence in serious proportions almost every year. The BT cotton almost change incidence to caused change in insect pest complex ecosystem, but several are ineffective by BT gene.
Major pest: Leaf hopper, Cotton aphid, Whitefly, Mealy bug, American bollworm, Pink bollworm,
Minor pest: Red cotton bug, Dusky cotton bug, Tobacco cutworm, Leaf roller, weevil, Black scale, White scale, Yellow steam scale.
Management and control of cotton insect pest.
1.) Leaf hopper:
Scientifically known as Amrasca devastans is major pest of cotton and other host range is potato, brinjal, castor, bhendi, tomato and sunflower.
Damage symptoms: Both nymphs and adult suck the sap from the under surface of leaves, tender leaves turn yellow, lea margins curl downwards and reddening sets. It give several infestation on leaves get a bronze or brick red color which is typical ‘hopper burn’.
• Early sowing and closed spacing of cotton reduces pest infestation particularly of the rainfall in heavy.
• Setup light trap to monitor the broods of leaf hopper and to attract and kill.
• Release predators viz.Chrysopa carnea.
• Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1000ml/ha and NSKE 5% “ 25kg/ha or 750 ml endosulfan 35 EC in 1000L of H2O/ha.
• Use resistance variety like MCU3, MCU5, and MCU 9.
Read also: The flower does not open and give rosette appearance due to Pink ballwarm.
2.) Cotton aphid:
Aphis gossypii are Indian occasionally serious, at savior at during favourable weather condition. It pest caused cotton infesting tender shoots and under the surface of the leaves. They occur large numbers and suck sap and causing stunted growth, gradual drying resulting in the death of the plants. Development of sooty mould due to the excretion of honeydew given the dark appearance in plant.
• Monitor the nymphs and adults of early-season sucking pests from the 14th hay after sowing.
• Conserve natural enemies viz, Monochilus sexmaculatus, coccinella septumpunctata, Aphelinus mali, A.flavipes, Phylloscopus tristis.
• Spray following pestisides. With 500L water/ha,
Acetamiprid 20sp 50g, Fluvalinate 25EC 200-400ml, Buprofezin 25SC 1.0L, Imidacloprid 70WG 30-35g or 30.0SC 60-75ml or 17.8SL 100-125ml, Profenofos 50EC1.0L, Fipronil 5SC 1.5-2.0L, Monocrotophos 1000ml, Dimethoate 500ml.
Fact thinks: Flaring of squares is due to Spotted bollworm.
3.) Cotton Thrips:
Scientifically known Thrips tabaci, are effect early at seedling stage or cotyledons most of at several stages are effected early on vegetative stage of the crop. Both nymph and adult are lacerate the tissues and suck the sape form the upper and lower surface of leaves and caused of several infection silvery shade are appear lower surface of leaves.
• Monitor the nymphs and adults of early season sucking pests from the 14th hay after sowing.
• Spray following pestisides. With 500L water/ha,
Buprofezin 25SC 1000ml, Profenofos 50EC 1000ml, Thiacloprid 21.7SC 100-125ml, Thiamethoxam 70WS 430g, Dimethoate 30EC 500ml.
4.) White fly:
Bemisia tabaci caused several injury in plant different as first suck sap by white fly and second secretion of honey dew by plant those attract ants and sooty mould formation and also decrease photosynthesis process and impact on Buds and bolls and poor ball opening. It is also vector or transmits the leaf curl virus disease in cotton.
• Use white fly tolerance varieties like: Amravati, Kanchan, LPS-141.
• Treat 100kg seed with imidacloprid 40FS 500-900ml or imaidacloprid 70WS 500gm.
• Timely sowing with recommended spacing, avoid late sowing.
• Avoid the cultivation of white fly alternate host crop (Bhindi, tomato, and tobacco) in the vicinity of the cotton crop.
• Remove and destroy alternate host weeds like: Abution indicum, Solanum nigrum.
• Spray white fly synthetic pesticides with 500L water: Acetamiprid 20SP 100g, Fenpropathin 30EC 250-340ml, Fipronil 5SC 1.5-2.0L, Profenofos 50EC 1.0L, Triaziphos 40EC 1.5-2ml.
5.) Mealy Bug:
Last few year mealybugs, which were considered be major pest is many crops have acquired the status of major pests specially in cotton, vegetables and fruits. Recently in India the cotton crop in Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujrat is being seriously infected with mealybug.
• Early crop termination.
• Destruction of cotton stalks.
• Regular monitoring of pest.
• Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE5%) 50ml/l + Neem oil 5ml/L + detergent powder 1gm/L can be sprayed as spot application on infected stalks.
• Spray less hazardous insecticide such as: acephate 75SP 2Kg, Malathion 50EC 2L, buprofezin 25SC 2L/ha, As last option spray moderate hazardous pesticides: Quinolphos 25EC or Chlorpyriphos 20EC 3L in 800-100l of water per ha.